Black fever caused by the Leishmania species. It also called Indian fever. This fever has many names as KALA AZAR, black fever, black fly fever, and visceral leishmaniasis.
It is mostly found in India and sudan.
What is the vector of black fever (Kala azar parasite)
The Kala-azar transmitted by the sandfly (Phlebotomus). Visceral leishmania caused by the Leishmania donovani complex.
visceral leishmaniasis symptoms (Kala-azar symptoms)
Kala azar has following symptoms.
- Rapid pulse rate
- Black urine
- Anemic symptoms
- Splenomegaly. RBC break down
The life cycle of Kala-azar ( visceral leishmaniasis )
Kala Azar has following steps in his life cycle.
- Sandflies (Phlebotomus) inject an infective form (promastigote) of leishmania into humans during a blood meal.
- This promastigote enters the liver, spleen, and bone marrow in the human body.
- This Promastigote change into amastigote.
- Amastigote multiple in the spleen, and liver.
- Infected tissue shows clinical signs.
- When sandflies take blood from the infected host. This amastigote multiple in the midgut of sandfly and differentiates it into Promastigate.
- This Promastigote migrates to the proboscis and infects other humans.
Kala Azar (black fever) Diagnosis
Following tests performed for kala-azar diagnosis.
- Leishmania donovani attack on the liver, spleen, and bone marrow. therefore for the demonstration of the intercellular parasite, material obtained by bone marrow aspirate, liver biopsy. In a liver biopsy, Leishmania donovani parasite seen.
- Buffy coat film prepared from blood.
- Leishmania culture on Schneider’s drosophila, RPM, and NNN media used.
- Skin test: Montenegro is also used.
- Immuno flurescence technique