Black fever is caused by the Leishmania species. It is also called Indian fever. This fever has many names as KALA AZAR, black fever, black fly fever, and visceral leishmaniasis.
It is mostly found in India and Sudan.
Black fever symptoms (Kala-azar )
Kala-azar has the following symptoms.
- Rapid pulse rate
- Black urine
- Anemic symptoms
- Splenomegaly. RBC break down
The life cycle of Kala-azar ( visceral leishmaniasis )
Kala Azar has the following steps in his life cycle.
- Sandflies (Phlebotomus) inject an infective form (promastigote) of leishmania into humans during a blood meal.
- This promastigote enters the liver, spleen, and bone marrow in the human body.
- This Promastigote change into amastigote.
- Amastigote multiple in the spleen, and liver.
- Infected tissue shows clinical signs.
- When sandflies take blood from the infected host. This amastigote multiple in the midgut of sandfly and differentiates it into Promastigate.
- This Promastigote migrates to the proboscis and infects other humans.
Kala Azar (black fever) Diagnosis
Following tests were performed for kala-azar diagnosis.
- Leishmania donovani attack the liver, spleen, and bone marrow. therefore for the demonstration of the intercellular parasite, the material was obtained by bone marrow aspirate and liver biopsy. In a liver biopsy, Leishmania donovani parasite was seen.
- Buffy coat film prepared from blood.
- Leishmania culture on Schneider’s drosophila, RPM, and NNN media were used.
- Skin test: Montenegro is also used.
- Immuno flurescence technique
What is the vector of black fever (Kala-azar parasite)
The Kala-azar transmitted by the sandfly (Phlebotomus). Visceral Leishmania is caused by the Leishmania donovani complex.