Indole test (tryptophan hydrolysis test): Principle, Procedure, Result

Indole test also called as tryptophan hydrolysis test, due to decomposition of tryptophan (Amino Acid). Principle of indole test when some bacteria react with Tryptophan (amino acid), hydrolysis it and change it o Indole compound. This Indole compound is visualized by the Ehrlich reagent. This compound changes the agar color into PINK. Note: If we … Read more

urease test: Principle, Procedure, result microbiology

Urease test is an important biochemical test for the identification of certain kinds of bacteria like helicobacter pylori, proteus, morganella, and enterocolitis. What is the principle of the urease test? Some bacteria produce enzymes called urease. When they react with urea, they split it and convert it into ammonia (NH3) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Ammonia … Read more

Deoxyribonuclease test (DNAse): Principle, procedure

DNAse test

Deoxyribonuclease test (DNAse) is an important biochemical test for the conformation of staph aureus. what is the Principle of Deoxyribonuclease test (DNAse) Staph aureus has an enzyme called DEOXYRIBONULEASE. When DNA (deoxyribose nucleic acid) reacts with staph aureus, its enzyme( DEOXYRIBONULEASE ) hydrolyze the DNA. which Reagents are use for DANse test ? Basically, two … Read more

Pseudomonas Oxidase test: Principle, Procedure, Reagents

Oxidase test helps to identify the vibro, Neisseria and Pseudomonas. Principle of oxidase test Pseudomonas Aurogenosa produced Oxidase Enzyme, which oxidizes the Phenylene Diamine to purple-colored compound. Reagent for Oxidase test Oxidase reagent is freshly prepared. It is a 1% solution of Tetramethyl-p-Phenylene Diamine Dihydrochloride. Oxidase Test Procedure Following steps are performed for oxidase test … Read more

Coagulase test: principle, procedure

Here you will learn about the “Coagulase test principle procedure”. The main purpose of this test is to differentiate the staph aureus from other types of staph. Staph aureus contains a coagulase enzyme that coagulates plasma. Note: Coagulase is an enzyme that exists in one type of staph (Staph aureus). Therefore this test named as … Read more

Albert staining principle, Procedure, USES

albert staining

What is Albert staining? Albert staining is a kind of differential stain. It is used to stain the metachromatic granules in the corynebacterium diphtheria. How do I make Albert stain? Here are the three reagents you need for Albert staining. Albert Stain: Albert Iodide Normal saline Which mordant is used in Albert staining ? Albert … Read more

Principle of catalase test: principle, reagent, procedure, antibody

Catalase test is important for identification of varius bacteria specially staphylococcus aureus in microbiology. Here we learn about principle of catalase test, procedure and the reagents. Catalase test Procedure First of all, add 2 to 3 ml hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) solution in the test tube. In the next step, take the bacteria colony from culture … Read more

modified acid fast staining (ziehl neelsen stain) principle, procedure uses

Modified acid-fast staining principles are, that when mycobacteria and Nocardia species stain with carbol fuchsin, they stained and resist the decolorizing acid. But other bacteria decolorized by the acid. Therefore Mycobacteria and Nocardia species are called ACID FAST bacteria (AFB). ziehl neelsen stain procedure Following are the 4 steps in acid-fast staining. First, cover the … Read more

Gram staining procedure, principle, technique, uses

Here is the gram staining procedure step-wise. STEP 1:first step in gram staining, prepare a smear of the sample (blood, body fluid, pus, culture). Fix it by passing it over the flame. STEP 2: Cover the smear with crystal violet stain for 30 to 40 seconds. STEP 3: Pour off the stain and cover the … Read more

Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cyst life-cycle, Diagnosis, Images

Hydatid cyst of the liver caused by the Cysticerci of a Cestode. Hydatid cyst caused by the Echinococcus granulosus. Hydatid disease in the liver, caused by cystic echinococcosis. Composite computer illustration showing Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cyst in the human liver and close-up view of larvae protoscolices inside hydatid cyst. E. granulosus is a parasitic tapeworm, … Read more

what is the elephantiasis vector ( Filariasis ): 3 most Important symptoms

Here you will learn about, what is elephantiasis vector? what is the main cause of it?. it is a nematodes disease. In this disease, Larva of microfilariae is the main source. Filarial worms are long and thin. It attacks the lymphatic system and subcutaneous connective tissue. Most nematodes produce microfilariae in the blood of host. … Read more

Black fever symptoms, diagnosis, (Kala-azar)

Black fever is caused by the Leishmania species. It is also called Indian fever. This fever has many names as KALA AZAR, black fever, black fly fever, and visceral leishmaniasis. It is mostly found in India and Sudan. Black fever symptoms (Kala-azar ) Kala-azar has the following symptoms. Fever weightloss fatigue Rapid pulse rate Black … Read more

Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis life cycle (Amastigote , Promestigote)

mucocutaneous leishmaniasis is a cutaneous disease caused by the flagellate protozoan called the Leishmania Tropica complex. It is transmitted by the sandfly of the genus PHLEBOTOMUS. mucocutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Female Sandfly genus phlebotomus is the causative agent of leishmania cutaneous. This sandfly is the definitive host. Human is the intermediate host. Cutaneous leishmaniasis has … Read more

plasmodium falciparum signs and symptoms, prevention


Plasmodium falciparum signs and symptoms came out within 2 to 3 days after the mosquito bite. 5 main signs and symptoms Plasmodium falciparum  This is a serious sometimes fatal disease of malaria caused by the biting of a mosquito known as Anopheles. Malaria is caused by the Sporozoa, genus Plasmodium. Malaria has four types. It … Read more

5 different types of culture media (simple, basic, transport) in microbiology

There are different types of culture media in the microbiology laboratory. These culture media are used for the growth of bacteria. Different bacteria need different conditions of growth. Some bacteria need aerobic conditions for their growth, while some grow under aerobic conditions.   Different types of  culture media in microbiology  The microbiology laboratory has SEVEN … Read more

Routine microscopic urinalysis procedure, Physical, chemical, microscopic

The urinalysis procedure test is important because it provides important information about the patient’s health. The Urine test is a valuable index for normal and pathological mechanisms. Many characteristics and components of it are unstable therefore urinalysis should be done within thirty mint (30) after collection. The delay in testing may result in gross changes … Read more

differences between sterilization and disinfection procedure

Sterilization and disinfection microbiology is an important technique for cleaning laboratory articles like glassware. Sterilization defines as, freeing laboratory articles from bacteria, viruses, and fungi including their spores. Spore can be pathogenic or nonpathogenic. what are the 4 Types of sterilization? There are 4 types of Sterilization. All these kinds are used for cleaning lab … Read more

Review of medical microbiology and immunology 15th edition PDF


Review of medical microbiology and immunology 15th edition pdf THIS IS A TEXTBOOK OF MICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY. REVIEW OF MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY YOU CAN READ IT IN PDF FORM.      Here you can read  Classification of Bacteria on chart classification of bacteria on the base of morphology   in this post, we have … Read more

List of gram negative bacteria and their diseases (infections)

The list of gram-negative bacteria is big.  Gram-negative bacteria list and their disorders  Bacteria are classified on the basis of gram stain. Some bacteria are gram-positive and some of them are gram-negative. Gram-negative bacteria attain pink color while gram-positive have violet color. List of 14 gram-negative bacteria and their diseases Here is the name of … Read more

microbiology test bank

microbiology test bank Here are important microbiology MCQs and answer key 1) Gram-positive bacteria attain……..color in Gram staining? a. Purple      b. pink c. red 2) Gram-negative bacteria stained as……….. in Gram stain.A. blue b. pink c. purple 3) Prokaryotes differ from Eukaryotic by……….a. binary fission b. mitosis   c. both 4) Morphologically COCCI are ………in shape.a. oval b. spiral c. … Read more