Glucose tolerance test procedure gestational diabetes

glucose tolerance test procedure preparation

A glucose tolerance test, also known as a oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), is an important diagnostic tool used to identify diabetes or prediabetes. It measures how well the body is able to process glucose, which is the body’s main source of energy. The test typically begins with a fasting period of at least 8 … Read more

What are the early signs of diabetes in women, food chart and bread good for diabetics

What are the early signs of diabetes in women, food chart and bread good for diabetics

Diabetes is a chronic condition that affects millions of people worldwide. It is characterized by high blood sugar levels, which can damage the body over time if left untreated. Women are just as likely as men to develop diabetes, but they may have different symptoms and risk factors. Understanding the early warning signs of diabetes … Read more

What is ggt in blood test? Ggt test High and low mean?

What is ggt in blood test? Ggt test High and low mean?

First we will learn about “What is ggt in blood test?”. GGT (Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase) is an enzyme that is primarily found in the liver and bile ducts. It plays a role in the metabolism of glutathione. Elevated levels of GGT in the blood can indicate liver or bile duct damage or disease, such as liver … Read more

water deprivation test procedure diabetes insipidus

Water deprivation test used to differentiate the causes between diabetes insipidus and primary polydipsia. Water deprivation test principle The period after the administration of the desmopressin tests for the kidney’s ability to vasopressin and therefore differentiates between cranial and nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus. The results of this test may be equivocal, necessitating further investigation. Water deprivation … Read more

Benedict test procedure ( reducing sugar test)

Benedict test procedure principle

The Benedict’s test is a simple chemical that can be used to assess the presence of reducing sugars. Reducing sugars have free aldose or ketose groups, which capable of donating electrons to other molecules by oxidizing them. Reducing sugars are mostly monosaccharides (eg glucose, fructose, galactose) and some of them are disaccharides which are lactose … Read more

Serum amylase test procedure, range in pancreatitis

Serum amylase test is important for calculation of hydrolytic enzyme which hydrolyses starch into maltose. It present in saliva and pancreatic juice where it is secreted by parotid glands and pancreas respectively. Small amounts of leak into circulation due to where and tear of cells in these glands. The circulating enzyme is excreted by the … Read more

Schick test procedure, interpretation (Dephtheria test)

Schick test procedure is used to demonstrate the level of antibodies in the blood of a person, who is either immunized or was previously infected by the dephtheria. Schick test procedure One Schick test dose of the toxin is injected intradermally in one forearm and the same amount of heated toxin is injected into the … Read more

Fredrickson’s classification of hyperlipidemia (type I, II, IIa, IIb, III, IV, V) is based on the electrophoretic pattern of lipoprotein

Hyperlipidemia means a high level of lipid content in the blood. It may be due to a primary cause or secondary. Secondary cause due to some kinds of disease Diabetes Mellitus Hypothyroidism Nephrotic Syndrome Fredrickson classified hyperlipidemia on the base of an electrophoretic pattern of lipoprotein. There are six types of hyperlipidemia.

what is hyperkalemia, hypokalemia causes?

Human blood consists of blood cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets) and electrolytes (sodium, potassium, and calcium ions). 

Some diseases change electrolytes concentration like Cushing disease cause hypernatremia while Addison disease causes hyponatremia.

hyperkalemia, hypokalemia causes

Some diseases alter the potassium level and cause hyponatremia or hypernatremia. 

Hypokalemia is defined as “a deficiency of potassium ions in the blood“. There are many causes of the deficiency of potassium. 

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Hypernatremia and hyponatremia causes

hyponatremia causes

Hypernatremia and hyponatremia are two different medical terms. Hypernatremia medical definition is “Hyper means “excess” while hypo means “low”. Hypernatremia condition occurs when sodium ions concentration is increased by any causes. In the same way, when Na+ concentration is less than normal. It is known as hyponatremia. There are two types of electrolytes in our … Read more