Human blood consists of blood cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets) and electrolytes (sodium, potassium, calcium ions). 

Some diseases change electrolytes concentration like Cushing disease cause hypernatremia while Addison disease causes hyponatremia.

hyperkalemia, hypokalemia causes

Some diseases alter the potassium level and cause hyponatremia or hypernatremia. 

Hypokalemia is defined as “a deficiency of potassium ions in the blood“. There are many causes of the deficiency of potassium. 

What are the causes of hypokalemia?

Following are the causes of hypokalemia.

  1. Loss of potassium from the body causes hypokalemia
    1. Prolong vomiting 
    2. Diarrhea
    3. Hyperaldosteronism (secondary)
    4. Hyperaldosteronism
    5. Cushing syndrome
    6. Renal tubular acidosis
    7. Renal tubular failure
    8. Carbonoxolone therapy
    9. Fanconi syndrome
  2. Due to reduce intake: Chronic starvation
  3. Re-distribution in the body
    1. Alkalosis
    2. Insulin and glucose therapy
    3. Familial periodic acidosis

 

What is hyperkalemia cause?

Hyper means “more” and kalemia means “potassium“. Increase in concentration of potassium ions level in the body.

Following are the causes of hyperkalemia.

  • Gain of potassium to the body
    1. Overenthusiastic potassium therapy
    2. Not stopping therapy after correction.
  • Renal Secretion failure
    1. Diuretic working on the distal tubules, spironolactone, amiloride, and triamterene.
    2. Hypoaldosteronesim
    3. Renal failure
  • Redistribution in the body
    1. Severe tissue damage
    2. Hypoxia
    3. Acidosis
    4. Diabetic keto-acidosis
    5. Shock

 

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