ABO blood group system was discovered by Karle Lanstiner in 1901. After a few years, other blood types like Rh, Kell, Kidd, Duffy, Lewis, Lutheran, and MNS were identified.

It is important abo blood grouping methods to screen blood groups in the blood banks.

There are two abo blood grouping tube methods in the blood bank.

  1. Forward Grouping (Direct)
  2. Reverse Grouping (Indirect)

Forward blood Grouping method (Direct Typing)

The forward blood typing method performs on blood cells. There are two types of forwarding grouping methods.

  1. The Tile method
  2. Test Tube method

Both of these methods are used to screen the blood. Here is the detail of these methods.

Tile method of blood grouping-(Forward Grouping)

Following is the blood grouping principle and procedure.

  1. First draw blood with stricket antiseptic SOP. Allow the blood to clot. Centrifuge the sample and separate the serum in an other test tube.
  2. Prepare the 5% cell suspension. You can prepare by mixing one drop of packed cell with ninteen drops of normal saline.
  3. Take a tile. Make four circule A, AB, rh-D and A1.
  4. Drop one drop of anti sera in these circules.
  5. Now drop one drop of cell suspesion in every circule. Mix with separate glass rod.
  6. Gentily tilt the tile backward and forward for two to three mintes.
  7. Now check agglutination by macroscopicaly and finally by microscopically.

Note: Rh-D negative person should be tested for Du.

Test tube method-Forward Grouping

The test tube method is different from the tile method. In this method, we use a test tube instead of “tile”. Here is the procedure of the test tube method of direct blood typing.

  1. First prepare 3% solution of blood cells in buffered isotonic saline solution.
  2. Arrange the test tube in a rack by A, A1, AB and rh-D order.
  3. Now put the antisera in each tube.
  4. Drop the suspension in each tube and mix well and centrifuge it at 3400 RPM for 20 seconds.
  5. Read the test by macroscopically and by microscopically.

Quality Control in forward blood typing

Antisera should be tested with known A, AB, and Rh-positive blood cells.

Reverse blood grouping method (Indirect-Typing)

The reverse blood typing method can be performed on both the tile and test tube.

  1. The tile method
  2. Test Tube method

Tile method of blood grouping-(Reverse Grouping)

Following is the procedure of the tile method in reverse blood typing.

  1. Lable the tile with lead penciple A, B and O circle.
  2. Place one drop of test serum in each circle.
  3. Add one drop of corresponding 3% red cell suspension in each circle.
    1. Add one drop of 3% cell suspension of patient in auto-control lable circle.
  4. Mix wel with glass rod, gentily tilt the tile backward and forward for two minutes.
  5. Now read the test first macroscopically and finally by microscopically.

Test Tube method- Indirect blood Typing

Here is the test tube blood grouping principle and procedure.

  1. Place one drop of test serum in each a labled A, B, O and auto-control tube.
  2. By using pasture pipettem, place one drop of corresponding 3% cell suspension in each tube.
  3. Add one drop of patient cell suspension in a lable auto-control tube.
  4. Mix well and centrifuge at 3400 RPM for 20 seconds.
  5. Now read the test by macroscopically and finally by microscopically.

Difference between tube and tile method of blood group?

most common blood type in Canada?

Blood groups compatibility chart

Here is the blood compatibility chart.

O-Negative is the universal donor blood group, while AB-positive is the universal receiver, blood group.

BLOOD GROUPReceive FromCan Donate to
A +A+, O+, O-A+ , AB +
B +B+, O+, O-B+ , AB+
AB +AllAB+
O +O+, O-O+ A+, B +, AB+,
A –A-, O-A-, A+
B –B-, O-B-, B+
AB –A-,B-,AB-,O-AB-, AB +
O –O-Universal Donor
Blood type chart compatibility

What is the difference between Direct grouping and Indirect Grouping in a blood bank?

Blood can be screened both by cells and by serum. When we screen blood by the blood cells, it is called forward grouping. In this method, unknown blood cells are mixed with Known antisera.
In the Reverse grouping method, we use serum, instead of blood cells. In this method, Unknown serum is tested against known red blood cells.

what is the most common blood group in India?

“O-Group” blood group is the most common and most demanded group in the hospital in India, followed by B-group, followed by the A-group, and the last AB-group.

What is the most common blood group in the world?

“O-group” is the most common and most demanded blood group in the world.

which is the rarest blood group in the world?

AB-Negative is the rarest blood group in the world. About 1% have an AB-negative group

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