Hypernatremia and hyponatremia are two different medical terms. Hyper means “excess” while hypo means “low”. Hypernatremia condition occurs when sodium ions concentration is increased by any causes. In the same way, when Na+ concentration is less than normal. It is known as hyponatremia.
There are two types of electrolytes in our blood cations and anions.
- Cations- They are four in numbers having positive charge on their surface.
- Sodium (Na+)
- Potassium K+
- calcium Ca+
- magnesium Mg+
- Anions– They are four in numbers having negative charge on their surface.
- Chloride (Cl– )
- Biocarbonate (Hco3–)
Sodium-ion is the major extracellular ion while potassium is the major intracellular ion.
Aldosterone secretion is important for controlling the sodium ions concentration in our body. Same as an anti-diuretic hormone that controls the water concentration.
What are the major causes of hypernatremia?
Hypernatremia means the excess amount of Sodium ions in the body. Followings are the causes of hypernatremia.
- Sever Dehydration.
- Hyperadrenalism (Cushing syndrome) : Excess reabsorption of sodium take palce at renal tubules as a result over synthesis of corticosteroids.
- Nasogastic Feeding : when patient takes high amount of protein without sufficient fluid intake.
- Diabetes Insipidus : treated with insuline as some sodium ions in the cell replaced by potassium ions.
- Comatose Disease
- Damage to thirst center
- Sodium heparin anticoagulant
What are the major causes of hyponatremia?
Hyponatremia means low concentration of sodium ions ( Na+ ). Following are the causes of hyponatremia
- Acidosis of diabetes mellitius before the comma stage. When large amount of sodium and potassium ions excreted into the urine as a salt of keto-acidosis with the replaceement of water only.
- Intestinal fistula
- Severe GI disturbance
- It occure when replacement is made with water only.
- Renal diseases (Salt losing nephritis): Malefunction of tubular ion exchange of sodium for hydrogen and potassium.
- Addison disease: depressed secretion of aldosterone and corticosteroids.
- Diabeter insipidius (poterior pituitary horme defficiency) with compensatory intake of water.
What is hyponatremia?
Hyponatremia is medical term used to describe the low concentration of sodium ions ( Na+ ) in the body.
What is the common causes of hyponatremia?
Addison disease, dirrhoea and diabetes insipidius are the common causes of hyponatremia.
What is Hypernatremia?
Hyper means more amount. Therefore hypernatremia means the excess amount of Sodium ions in the blood.
What are the common causes of hypernatremia?
Comatose Disease, Sever Dehydration and Cushing syndrome are the common causes of hypernatremia.