Hypernatremia and hyponatremia causes

Hypernatremia and hyponatremia are two different medical terms. Hypernatremia medical definition is “Hyper means “excess” while hypo means “low”.

Hypernatremia condition occurs when sodium ions concentration is increased by any cause. In the same way, when Na+ concentration is less than normal. It is known as hyponatremia.

There are two types of electrolytes in our blood cations and anions.

  1. Cations- They are four in number having a positive charge on their surface.
    1. Sodium (Na+)
    2. Potassium K+
    3. calcium Ca+
    4. magnesium Mg+
  2. Anions– They are four in number having a negative charge on their surface.
    1. Chloride (Cl )
    2. Bicarbonate (Hco3-)
    3. Phosphate
    4. Sulfate

The sodium ion is the major extracellular ion while potassium is the major intracellular ion.

Aldosterone secretion is important for controlling the sodium ions concentration in our body. Same as an anti-diuretic hormone that controls the water concentration.

what is the most common cause of hypernatremia, hyponatremia?

Hypernatremia means the excess amount of Sodium ions in the body. Followings are the causes of hypernatremia.

  1. Severe Dehydration.
  2. Hyperadrenalism (Cushing syndrome) : Excess reabsorption of sodium takes place at renal tubules as a result of the synthesis of corticosteroids.
  3. Nasogastric Feeding: when the patient takes a high amount of protein without sufficient fluid intake.
  4. Diabetes Insipidus: treated with insulin as some sodium ions in the cell are replaced by potassium ions.
  5. Comatose Disease
  6. Damage to the thirst center
  7. Sodium heparin anticoagulant

What are the major causes of hyponatremia?

Hyponatremia means a low concentration of sodium ions ( Na+ ). The following are the causes of hyponatremia

  • Acidosis of diabetes Mellitus before the comma stage. When a large amount of sodium and potassium ions are excreted into the urine as a salt of keto-acidosis with the replacement of water only.
  • Diarrhea
  • Intestinal fistula
  • Severe GI disturbance
  • It occurs when replacement is made with water only.
  • Renal diseases (Salt losing nephritis): Malfunction of tubular ion exchange of sodium for hydrogen and potassium.
  • Addison disease: depressed secretion of aldosterone and corticosteroids.
  • Diabetes insidious (posterior pituitary hormone deficiency) with the compensatory intake of water.

What is hyponatremia?

Hyponatremia is a medical term used to describe the low concentration of sodium ions ( Na+ ) in the body.

What are the common causes of hyponatremia?

Addison’s disease, diarrhea, and diabetes insidious are the common causes of hyponatremia.

What is Hypernatremia?

Hyper means more amount. Therefore hypernatremia means the excess amount of Sodium ions in the blood.

What are the common causes of hypernatremia?

Comatose Disease, Severe Dehydration, and Cushing syndrome are the common causes of hypernatremia.

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