Malaria is one of the most widespread parasitic diseases in the world. It mostly affects the tropic and sub-tropic areas. The malaria parasite belongs to the class Sporozoa and the genus plasmodium.

Plasmodium falciparum’s life cycle consists of two hosts. One host is intermediate and the other is definitive. Human is intermediate host while the mosquito is the definitive host.

Pathogenesis of plasmodium falciparum

The first female anopheles mosquito takes the blood and enters the sporozoite into a human. This sporozoite enters the bloodstream and reaches the liver of the intermediate host (Human). In the liver, this sporozoite develops to form schizont.

Schizont rapture and release merozoite. This merozoite attack the red blood cells. blood-stage malaria is responsible for clinical symptoms.

Ring stage of plasmodium falciparum

The ring stage began when merozoite enters the bloodstream. It developed into an immature trophozoite form, then a mature trophozoite form.

At this stage, trophozoite undergoes into two-cycle. Cycle (A) trophozoite develops schizont. This schizont ruptures and releases merozoite in the host. Now we talk about cycle (B), in the Red blood cell mature trophozoite form RING FORM. It develops into gametocytes.

Note: Anopheles mosquito takes gametocytes, which undergo a sporogenic cycle.

what are the 4 types of malaria?

  1. Plasmodium. vivix
  2. P. Falciparum
  3. P. Malariae
  4. Plasmodium Oval

Plasmodium falciparum stages

P.Falciparum has two cycle

  1. Asexual cycle (Schizogony)
  2. Sexual Stage

The malaria parasite lifecycle consists of two hosts. One host is Anophil Mosquito and the other Host is Human.

Plasmodium cycle consists of two Stages Asexual Cycle and a Sexual cycle.
  1. Infected Fe.male Anopheles Mosquito bit the Human and enter the SPOROZOITES into a human host. 
  2. SPOROZOITE enters into the Liver and matures into SCHIZONTS.
  3. SCHIZONTS after maturation rapture and release MEROZOITES. This stage is known as the Pre-Erthrocytic Schizogony or Tissue Phase.

Note: Plasmodium Vivax and Plasmodium Oval remain dormant at this stage (Hyponozoites).

Sometime in the Hypnozoite stage, P.Vivax or P. Oval cause relapses by invading the Bloodstream weeks or even a year later. This stage is known as the Exo-Erthrocytic Stage. After this initial replication in liver 
  1. The parasite undergoes asexual multiplication in ERYTHROCYTE called ROCYTIC SCHIZOGINY. 
  2. MEROZOITE infects red blood cells.
  3. RING from Trophozoite matures into SCHIZONTS which ERYTHROCYTE rapture and release MEROZOITES.
  4. After infection, this merozoite develops into sexual erythrocytes stage GAMETOCYTE.
  5. After about 10 to 12 days later blood parasites cause Clinical symptoms of malaria.  

Sexual Stage of plasmodium falciparum

This is a sexual stage of the life cycle of the malaria parasite. This stage starts when the female anopheles mosquito sucks the blood of the infected person, a sexual form of parasite male Microgametocyte and Female MACRO-GAMETOCYTE ingested. 
  1. This parasite multiple in Mosquito Known as SPOROGONY.
  2. In the mosquito stomach, Microgametocyte penetrates into Microgametocyte generates ZYGOTES.
  3. The zygote becomes motile (OOKINETES) attack the mosquito mid-GUT-WALL and turn into OOCYTES.
  4. These oocytes grow and rapture into SPOROZOITES, which makes their way to the salivary gland. 

Note: All sexual and Asexual cycle seen in the except P.Falciparum which mature in RBC, these RBC sequestered in capillary or small vessels.

6 importants Symptoms of Plasmodium Falciparum

Following are the most important symptoms of malaria.

  1. Headache
  2. Shivering
  3. Fever
  4. Dehydration
  5. Tiredness
  6. Some time joint pain

Lab Diagnosis of P.Falciparum

Following lab tests is necessary for malaria conformation

  1. Microscopic examination of the parasite in the blood smear (Using Giemsa stain).
  2. Fluorescent dye staining of p.blood smear.
  3. ICT. mp

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