The urinalysis procedure test is important because it provides important information about the patient’s health.
The Urine test is a valuable index for normal and pathological mechanisms.
Many characteristics and components of it are unstable therefore urinalysis should be done within thirty minutes (30) after collection.
The delay in testing may result in gross changes that affect the report. Bacteria affect the PH, glucose, ketone, and RBC. Hydrolysis and oxidation affect the bilirubin. Exposure to light results in the photodegradation of urobilinogen to urobilin.
Types of Urine Analysis Procedure
There are three types of tests for urine.
- Physical Examination
- Chemical Examination
- Microscopic Examination
Physical Examination of urinalysis procedure
In physical examination, the lab technologist notes the following parameters.
- Urine Volume: 24-hour urine volume is collected and measured in the calibrated cylinder. In this way, polyuria and oliguria differentiate.
- Color of normal urine: Normally urine is pale yellow. Uroerythrin, urochrome, and porphyrin change the color of urine.
- Appearance: Normally it is clear. Urine becomes cloudy due to crystals like urate, phosphate, etc.
- Normal PH of urine: Urine Ph is around 5-7. This PH change is due to kidney problems.
- specific gravity urine test: Urine-specific gravity is 1.010 to 1.025. change in specific gravity occurs in vomiting, kidney disease, fever, and dehydration.
Chemical Examination of urinalysis procedure
Chemical analysis of urine contains the following tests.
- Protein Estimation:
- Glucose and Reducing Sugar:
- Bilirubin Estimation:
- Bile Estimation:
- Ketone Bodies:
- Bence Jones Proteins:
microscopic urine examination
During the microscopy of urine, all these things are examined.
- White blood cells
- Red blood cells
- Epithelial Cell
- Amorphous Deposits