Anemia is defined as low hemoglobin (HB) concentration or decreased amount of red blood cell mass in the blood.
There are three different types of anemia on the basis the of Morphological classification of the anemia chart.
Hemoglobin level depends on many factors like gender, age, nutrition, and health. The female has lower Hemoglobin as compared to the male due to the menses cycle and lack of androgen hormone.
What are the Three Different types of anemia?
Anemia is classified into three different types on the basis of Red blood cell morphology (Size, shape), Hemoglobin concentration.
Anemia is classified into three subgroups on the basis of RBC size.
- Microcytic Hypochromic Anemia
- Macrocytic Anemia
- Normocytic Normochromic Anemia
Microcytic Hypochromic types of Anemia
In this type of anemia, Red blood cells become small in size as compared to normal in size, and their hemoglobin (HB) concentration decreased. Therefore RBC color changes into hypochromic color.
In microcytic anemia, the following changes occur in blood tests.
- MCH (Mean corpuscle hemoglobin),
- MCHC (Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration),
- MCV (Mean corpuscular volume) decreased.
What are the examples of Microcytic types of anemia
- Iron deficiency Anemia
- Sidroblastic anemia“
Macrocytic type of Anemia
In this type of anemia, the size of red blood cells increased as compared to normal size. But the hemoglobin amount in the cell decreased. Following changes occurs in the CBC test.
- Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) increased
- MCH and MCHC values remain normal.
Examples of Macrocytic anemia:
- Megaloblastic anemia
- Aplastic anemia
- Hemolytic anemia
- Liver Disease
Normocytic Normochromic Anemia
In this type of anemia, the hemoglobin amount in RBC decreased but the size of RBC remains normal in the blood. Absolute value MCV, MCH, and MCHC remain normal.
Examples of Normocytic and Normocromic anemia:
- Blood loss
- Chronic Renal failure
- Bone marrow infiltration
5 main Symptoms of anemic persons
- shortness of breath
- Pale skin
How to diagnose different types of anemia in clinical laboratories?
Following laboratory test were performed for the diagnosis of anemia.
- Hemoglobin concentration (Sahli’s method).
- Total Red blood cells count (CBC should be performed).
- Estimation of Hematocrit.
- Reticulocyte counts.
- Absolute value calculation (MCV, PCV, MCH, MCHC.
How many types of anemia are there
Anemia has three types.
- Microcytic anemia (Rbc small in size ),
- Macrocytic anemia (RBC bigger in size), and
- Normocytic anemia (Normal Size of RBC).
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