D-dimer laboratory test principle procedure

D-dimer test principle procedure

The D-dimer laboratory test is used to detect the presence of D-dimer (a protein fragment that is produced when a blood clot dissolves in the body). D-dimer test principle The principle of the D-dimer test is based on the fact that when blood clots are formed and then broken down through a process called fibrinolysis, … Read more

How are monoclonal antibodies produced

Monoclonal antibodies, often abbreviated as mAbs, are a class of antibodies that are produced in the laboratory by cloning a single type of immune cell, specifically a B cell (B lymphocyte). These antibodies are designed to target a specific antigen, typically a protein or other molecule associated with a disease or condition. Monoclonal antibodies are … Read more

What is antigen presentation

Antigen presentation ( Lymphocytes ) is a fundamental process that involves the display of antigens to immune cells called lymphocytes. These lymphocytes include T cells (T lymphocytes) and B cells (B lymphocytes), which are key players in the adaptive immune response. Antigens can be derived from pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi, as well … Read more

Antigen Antibody reaction steps , applications

The antigen antibody reaction also known as antigen-antibody binding. It is a fundamental concept in immunology that plays a critical role in our body’s defense against pathogens and foreign substances. This interaction involves antibodies ( which are proteins produced by the immune system) binding to specific antigens (which are molecules found on the surface of … Read more

Thyroglobulin antibody

Thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) is an antibody that the immune system produces against thyroglobulin, a protein found in the thyroid gland. Thyroglobulin is involved in the production of thyroid hormones. The presence of TgAb in the blood can be a sign of autoimmune thyroid disorders such as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis or Graves’ disease. TgAb levels is often … Read more

Systemic lupus erythematosus symptoms,causes diagnosis, rashes

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects multiple organs and systems in the body. It is characterized by the production of antibodies that attack healthy tissues, leading to inflammation and tissue damage. What are the signs and symptoms of Systemic lupus erythematosus? The signs and symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) … Read more

What are Respiratory syncytial virus RSV symptoms, in kids and Adults?

Respiratory syncytial virus RSV symptoms kids and Adults

Respiratory syncytial virus or RSV is a common respiratory virus that can cause symptoms ranging from mild to severe. It is a leading cause of respiratory infections in young children and can also affect adults, particularly older adults and people with weakened immunity. RSV is highly contagious and spreads easily through respiratory secretions, such as … Read more

C-reactive protein test method procedure, High, Low

c-reactive protein blood test principle, procedure, indications, High, Low

CRP test is an important biomarker of inflammatory cytokinesis such as interleukin-6. Therefore c-reactive blood test is used to assess their concentration. It is classified as an acute-phase reactant, which means c-reactive protein concentration rises within a few hours. C-reactive protein increases in the following conditions, Cell injuries Infections Inflammation C-reactive protein principle This test … Read more

5 most common autoimmune disease

5 most common autoimmune disease Here is the list of 5 fatal autoimmune diseases.            Multiple sclerosis (MS)          Type 1 diabetes mellitus.          Guillain-Barré syndrome          Rheumatoid arthritis          The systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus)          Inflammatory … Read more