Hematology is the branch of medical science that focuses on the study of blood, its components, and related disorders. This field plays a crucial role in understanding and managing a wide range of conditions that affect the blood and its cellular constituents. It involves laboratory analyses, such as complete blood counts, blood smears, and coagulation tests, to diagnose and monitor conditions like anemia, leukemia, hemophilia, and thrombosis.

  1. Complete Blood Count (CBC): Measures the total number of red blood cells (RBCs) red blood cell indices, white blood cells (WBCs), and platelets in a given volume of blood. It includes parameters such as hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and differential WBC count.
  2. GIEMSA Stain: Giemsa stain is often used for peripheral blood smears and bone marrow aspirate smears, providing excellent visualization of cell morphology.
  3. Leishman stain: Leishman stain is used for blood smears and offers good nuclear and cytoplasmic detail of blood cells.
  4. Wright Stain: It is commonly used for staining blood smears to visualize and differentiate various blood cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
  5. Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E): It is used in bone marrow biopsies to assess cellular morphology and tissue structures.
  6. Prussian Blue Stain: It is specifically used to detect the presence of iron in tissues. It is used in bone marrow aspirate smears to assess iron stores in cells.
  7. Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) Stain: This stain is used in identifying certain abnormal cells, such as those seen in myelodysplastic syndromes, acute leukemias, and some storage disorders.
  8. Sudan Black B Stain: It is used to detect lipids and myeloperoxidase activity in cells, assisting in the identification of myeloid cells and the assessment of granule content.
  9. Toluidine Blue Stain: Used in the examination of bone marrow biopsy specimens to assess mast cell involvement in disorders like systemic mastocytosis.
  10. Peripheral Blood Smear: A microscopic examination of a stained blood smear to assess the morphology of blood cells, including RBCs, WBCs, and platelets. It helps identify abnormalities such as anemia, infections, and blood cell disorders.
  11. Reticulocyte Count: Measures the percentage of reticulocytes (young, immature RBCs) in the blood, providing information about bone marrow activity and the rate of RBC production.
  12. Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR): Determines the rate at which red blood cells settle in a tube over a specified period, indicating the presence of inflammation in the body.
  13. Coagulation Studies: Assess the blood’s clotting ability, including tests like prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and international normalized ratio (INR).
  14. Platelet Function Tests: Assess the ability of platelets to aggregate and participate in blood clotting.
  15. Blood Typing and Crossmatching: Determines the blood type (A, B, AB, O) and Rh factor, essential for blood transfusions. Crossmatching ensures compatibility between donor and recipient blood.
  16. Hemoglobin Electrophoresis: Separates and identifies different types of hemoglobin, aiding in the diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies like sickle cell disease and thalassemia.
  17. Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy: Invasive procedures to collect samples from the bone marrow for analysis, providing information about hematologic disorders and malignancies.
  18. Hematologic Genetic Testing: Identifies genetic mutations associated with inherited blood disorders, such as hemophilia and certain types of anemia.
  19. Ferritin Test: Measures the concentration of ferritin, a protein that stores iron, to assess iron levels in the body.
  20. Blood Gas Analysis: Determines the levels of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH in arterial blood, helping assess respiratory function.
  21. Sickling Test: This test is used to diagnose sickle cell anemia.